Published: Thu, January 26, 2017
World | By Tasha Manning

Hematoma - ScienceDirect Topics

Hematoma - ScienceDirect Topics


Hematoma is the most common complication associated with venipuncture. It represents the extravasation of blood into interstitial spaces surrounding a blood vessel. The presence of blood in this space leads to localized swelling and discoloration. When venipuncture is successful, the needle itself acts as an obturator, sealing the hole in the vein wall made during entry of the needle.

In some patients, particularly older patients in whom vein walls are less elastic, leakage of blood around the needle may occur during the IV procedure even though the needle tip still lies within the lumen of the vein.

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Hematoma may occur at two distinct times during the IV procedure. First, it may develop during attempted venipuncture if the vessel is damaged. This is not always preventable. The second cause of hematoma is usually preventable. In this situation, the IV procedure has been completed and the catheter or needle removed from the vein. Improper application of pressure or inadequate duration of pressure at the site venipuncture can result in hematoma.

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