Published: Tue, January 03, 2017
World | By Tasha Manning

What's the right response to code-switching? | Teaching For Biliteracy


In the resource I am aware of better addresses this topic than Teaching for Biliteracy Chapter 5: Language Resources, Linguistic Creativity, and Cultural Funds of Knowledge .

Why honor student language

> Antonio Morales-López is a bilingual resource teacher at Sherman Middle School in Madison, Wisconsin. He writes:

During my childhood, I remember my mother saying "cualli tonaltin" (good morning) to my grandparents every morning and my friends singing "MEXICAME XIUIKI XITKAMAKI ..." (Mexicans, at the Cry of war), which is the first sentence of the Mexican national anthem. I never realized that they were speaking their home language, Nahuatl, but I knew that was part of their identity. Unfortunately, this language was considered inferior to many people in my town. As a result, my mother tried not to speak Nahuatl, unless her parents (my grandparents) were present. People who spoke this language became ashamed of their heritage and began to lose it, including my mother. Recently, I spoke to my mother about her home language and she replied "I have already forgotten many words, and I regret not practicing it when I was young." Sadly, my mother has forgotten a lot of words and she regretted not practicing when she Was younger. Allowing code-switching in schools is a way to honor minority language.

Gabriela Puente is a bilingual resource teacher at Chavez Elementary in Madison Metropolitan School District. She agrees with the Antonio's stance of valuing student language:

Gabriela also raises the question: How can code-switching serve as a formative assessment? Writing articles in a bilingual classroom give an insight as to how students are processing their thoughts as well as language. Writing samples should be used as formative assessments to find what the students' needs are and in turn give the opportunity to the teacher to plan that will target those needs.

Emily Urquizo is a world language teacher at Heritage Elementary in Waunakee School District. She adds to Gaby's ideas about using information from student writing:

Some strategies for addressing these code switches might be collecting evidence and taking notes on the switching code that is occurring and planning mini lessons that focus on Strengthening students' weaker areas. Beeman and Urow recommend dialogue and content area journals strategies to gather more information about students as writers, having a dialogue with them that includes modeling, and planning instruction that targets writing skills that are struggling with. [2]

Antonio Concurs. Even though some linguists argue that an open view towards code-switching may lead to an overuse / injudicious use of code-switching by teachers, I believe that it opens up the teachers 'mind to get familiar with the students' learning needs. P>

Why do not you eat meat in Lent?
Read or Share this story: http://www.lavozarizona.com/story/inicio/2015/02/18/by-qu-no-se-come-la-carne/23611267/ The Church, for its part, has specified certain forms of penance, to ensure that Catholics do something.

What are possible teacher moves to respond in the moment?

Antonio also speaks of the need for teachers to be intentional in the way they respond. He recommends reading Escamilla's advice to teachers about "what to ignore, what to worry about, and the instructional implications." [1].

A classmate Kalee Crist is an ESL / Bilingual Resource Teacher at Darlington Community School District. Kalee proposes:

Emily Urquizo adds: "It is important that there is a gradual release of responsibility that holds students accountable for language that they should be able to produce in each language. Forms of prompting such as clarification requests, elicitation, metalinguistic clues, or repetition of the error make students responsible for recognizing and correcting the errors. "[4]" Holding students accountable for language that is at or just above their zone of proximal development will ensure that they continue to develop higher levels of language proficiency. "

To teach strategic use of language?

Kalee writes: "When teachers create bridging activities or incorporate the Dictation (the use of dictated phrases or sentences to refine language arts skills in both Spanish and English and And the use of it as a tool to strengthen their language flexibility rather than hinder it. "[1] Gaby adds: "Moreover, to further promote metalinguistic strategies through code-switching, teachers should implement strategies such as bilingual word walls, riddles, authoring, and bilingual poetry. Emily U. cautions: "Although code switching is a powerful tool that is accepted and respected in a bilingual."

Classroom setting, it needs to be appropriately and purposefully used. Clear and agreed upon expectations of appropriate use of the most dominant language should be agreed upon by students and the teacher. "

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