Published: Пт, Августа 11, 2017
World | By Tasha Manning

Interdisciplinary Sessions In The Golden Cage: ENJAULADAS


The association of women and birds has a long tradition in Victorian culture. The concept of female inferiority was reinforced by the metaphorical possibilities of avian iconography and the symbology of domestic confinement. Unlike the males, represented by majestic and imposing birds such as the eagle and the hawk, the female gender was linked, compared or directly explained with small and weak birds, or those who stood out for their beauty or for their delicate trill.

The presence of birds became ubiquitous in the second half of the nineteenth century. Illustrations, poems, novels, paintings, manuals of behavior, all housed images of poultry. Even Victorian society witnessed an increase in the sale of carefully decorated exotic cages and aviaries. In 1857, Charlotte Brontë compares women to hummingbirds and pigeons, while Elizabeth Gaskell imagined them as sparrows and hens in Wives and Daughters 1866. Pictures such as The Pet {1853} by Walter Deverell, Good Night {1866} by Arthur Hughes, Veronica Veronese {1872} by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Or Evelyn De Morgan's The Gilded Cage (1900-1910), showed birds caged in domestic spaces while locating their female figures near windows or open doors that allowed the whole outside world to see. But mobility is always limited or, as in Rossetti's case, completely nullified.

The Pet {1852} by WALTER H. DEVERELL

"The earlier painting, The Pet, depicts a young lady, neatly attired in her afternoon dress, standing on the threshold between her home and Her garden surrounded by an array of pet birds A bird, perhaps a canary, is in a cage; one is on her right shoulder, directly under her chignon, and a pigeon at the left is perched on top of this cage with a small In this seemingly innocent portrait of a woman feeding her birds, Deverell makes a more complicated statement, fraught with ambiguities, and by adding the following "motto" to the painting: "garden bird, possibly a sparrow, hops across the path in the blackground. But after all, it is only questionable kindness to make a pet of creature so essentially volatile. "This attached emblematic line stimulates to re-examination of the painting. The composition contains a series of contrasts, which aim at visualizing the ambiguity suggested by The imprisoned or caged birds They are contrasted with the free birds who are at liberty to wander where they will. The woman herself stands between two alternatives, the inner world of her home and the outer world represented by the garden. This intermediate position is emphasized by Deverell's use of chiaroscuro: half of her body is lighted by the sun while half remains in shadow. Both the positions of the birds and their relationship to the woman make it clear that all of them have chosen the confinement of the "cage". The caged bird is unmistakably within the additional confines of the interior {...} although the woman's body is half lighted by the "outside" world, that world is but a garden, another "enclosure" of the woman. "< / P>

[ELAINE SHEFER, "Deverell, Rossetti, Siddal and 'The Bird in the Cage'", The Art Bulletin, Vol 67, No. 3, 1985, Good Night {1866} - ARTHUR HUGHES

Swallow, Swallow {1864} - JOHN EVERETT MILLAIS


MARIE SPARTALI STILLMAN

Veronica Veronese {1872}
DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI

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"In Rossetti's Veronica Veronese, the domestic interior again serves a purpose, highlighting the process of absorption in interior thought that is central to the scene. The female figure, a pale red-haired beauty of the Rossettian type, sits at a desk upon which a book of music lies open. The woman fingers a violin's bow and strings absently, while staring dreamily into space. A third wall draped with a heavy-looking patterned surface, the third space draped with heavy-looking patterned The colors of the wall and the drapery of the drapery on the wall of the wall of the wall of the interior of the interior of the house. The garment Are remarkably similar, heightening this effect. It seems Rossetti wishes to connect the figure and her surroundings, subtly implying the room is actually part of the woman {...} The walls and the woman are one. Nothing external to the female figure intrudes upon this private space, which is a prime setting for introspection and personal contemplation. "

[MAYA TAYLOR," Domestic Interiors the Extensions of the Feminine Soul ", The HENRY TONKS

The Painted Heart (1868) - ARTHUR HUGHES

The Gilded Cage {1900-1910}
EVELYN DE MORGAN

[ELISE LAWTON SMITH, Evelyn De Morgan and the Allegorical Body, Madison, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002, p. (Eds.), Animals and Women: Feminist Theoretical Explorations, Durham, Duke University Press, 1995.

ELISE LAWTON SMITH, Evelyn De Morgan and the Allegorical Body, Madison, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2002.

PAUL MARCHBANKS, "Jane Air: The Heroine as Caged Bird in Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre and Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca", Revue LISA / LISA e-journal, vol. IV, nº 4, 2006, pp. ELAINE SHEFER, "Deverell, Rossetti, Siddal and 'The Bird in the Cage'", The Art Bulletin , vol. 67, no. 3, 1985, pp.

MAYA TAYLOR, "Domestic Interiors as" and " Extensions of the Feminine Soul ", The Victorian Web , 2006.

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